Wildlife Conservation   >>   Tiger Conservation

Tiger Conservation Programme

The geographical distribution of tigers spans large parts of Asia, although it has greatly reduced in the last 50 years. Tigers are still found in a wide variety of forests, including dry deciduous, moist-deciduous, evergreen, riverine, and mangrove.

Tigers are fast and early breeders. The gestation period in tigers is as short as 1032 days under favorable conditions. Demographic parameters show that females start breeding at a mean age of 3.4 years and the litter size is usually three. Further, the inter-birth interval could be as short as 20 months. This reflects favorable reproductive attributes of the tiger. The survival rate among the cubs is also high if litters are large. With an intact habitat and prey population, tigers can easily recover from loss of population and this has been the key to the success of the tiger conservation programmes around the world.

Tigers unlike lions do not live in families. They are largely individualistic and usually move around on their own.  Although not much is known of their dispersal capabilities, it has been found that males disperse three times farther than females5. While the males disperse over 33km, females have an average dispersal of less than 10km. Indeed, male tigers control stretches ranging from 200km in thick forests to nearly five times in dry and arid regions.  

Dispersal is male-biased among mammals and they usually have a higher mortality. Although, the females are integral to reproductive success, the sex that is more vulnerable to extinction determines the probability of extinction of the species in a given sub-population. The male tiger is more susceptible to dying before reaching breeding age than the female tiger.

An average adult tiger must kill about 45 to 50 deer sized prey animals every year to survive. A tigress raising three cubs requires as many as 60 to 70 animals a year. Thus, the survival of a tiger population requires a large ungulate population that mainly consists of herbivores such as deer, sambar, muntjac, cheetal, wild pig, gaur, etc.

The Project Tiger Task Force recognises the role of Tiger in Ecosystem in its report that states  

“…it is necessary to increase the tiger population to optimum levels by the improvement of the biotope and the stimulation of its diversity, according to sound principles of conservation…Under no circumstances, however, shall these operations involve holding the tiger population at artificially high levels by such means as large scale, uncontrolled modification of the habitat, artificial feeding of the tiger or its prey, or the introduction of exotic species, which can only cause imbalance in the natural ecosystems and can have disastrous results for the habitat and its dependent fauna.”

Arulagam also felt the need to conserve Tiger and its habitat and in the year 2009 Arulagam started working towards Tiger Conservation.

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புலிகள் பாதுகாப்பு | Protecting Tigers Written by Bharathidasan.S 1617
Sensitizing Media Students on Tiger Conservation Written by Bharathidasan.S 7627
Sensitizing Media Professionals on Tiger Conservation Written by Bharathidasan.S 1058